Its oxides … It has been shown to reduce solidification cracking during the welding of high strength aluminium alloys. The cosmic abundance of scandium is relatively high. This lamp is a white-light source with high color rendering index that sufficiently resembles sunlight to allow good color-reproduction with TV cameras. 2H2O has a very high scandium content but is not available in any larger deposits.[21]. [52] About 80 kg of scandium is used in metal-halide lamps/light bulbs globally per year. Scandium has no biological role. [51] Scandium triflate is a catalytic Lewis acid used in organic chemistry.[53]. [54] The median lethal dose (LD50) levels for scandium chloride for rats have been determined as 755 mg/kg for intraperitoneal and 4 g/kg for oral administration. It is a soft silvery metal that has three times the density of water and can be found in the form of solid at room temperature. In the chemical compounds of the elements in group 3, the predominant oxidation state is +3. [35][36], Metallic scandium was produced for the first time in 1937 by electrolysis of a eutectic mixture of potassium, lithium, and scandium chlorides, at 700–800 °C. Further research showed that this was an illusion caused by the relatively low temperature (below 3,500 K) of these stars masking the abundance signals, and that this phenomenon was observable in other red giants. Scandium is dumped in the environment in many different places, mainly by petrol-producing industries. This has two beneficial effects: the precipitated Al3Sc forms smaller crystals than in other aluminium alloys,[43] and the volume of precipitate-free zones at the grain boundaries of age-hardening aluminium alloys is reduced. Scandium will gradually accumulate in soils and water soils and this will eventually lead to increasing concentrations in humans, animals and soil particles. Elemental scandium is considered non-toxic, though extensive animal testing of scandium compounds has not been done. Scandium is a silvery white, moderately soft metal. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half lives that are less than 4 hours, and the majority of these have half-lives that are less than 2 minutes. unknown. Scandium is only the 50th most abundant element on hearth, it is distributed widely, occurring in trace quantities in over 800 minerals. Properties Chemical characteristics. Add ⊕ Summary; Periodic Table; Facts; Uses; Physical; Chemical; Atomic; Mechanical; Magnetic; Thermal; Properties; All; 1 Chemical. Boiling point. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. [48][49], Dentists use erbium-chromium-doped yttrium-scandium-gallium garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) lasers for cavity preparation and in endodontics. Total number of protons in the nucleus is called the atomic number of the atom and is given the symbol Z. Crystal Structure of α-ScOOH", "Sur l'ytterbine, terre nouvelle de M. Marignac", Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft, Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie, "Star-wars intrigue greets scandium find", Evidence against Anomalous Compositions for Giants in the Galactic Nuclear Star Cluster, "A Novel Low-Density, High-Hardness, High-entropy Alloy with Close-packed Single-phase Nanocrystalline Structures", "Easton Technology Report: Materials / Scandium", "Green Lewis acid catalysis in organic synthesis",, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 23 November 2020, at 19:57. [47] Lacrosse sticks are also made with scandium. Ionic radius. The metal slowly dissolves in diluted acids—except hydrofluoric acid (HF), in which a protective trifluoride layer prevents further reaction. It can also enter the environment when household equipment is thrown away. Scandium burns easily and reacts with water. Scandium forms a series of organometallic compounds with cyclopentadienyl ligands (Cp), similar to the behavior of the lanthanides. Some of its behaviour, however, is atypical of the rare earths because of its significantly smaller ionic radius (1.66 Å for coordination number 12) as compared with the rare-earth average (1.82 Å for coordination number 12). Nilson was apparently unaware of Mendeleev's prediction, but Per Teodor Cleve recognized the correspondence and notified Mendeleev. Scandium is paramagnetic from 0 K (−273 °C, or −460 °F) to its melting point (1,541 °C, or 2,806 °F). The blue color of the aquamarine variety of beryl is thought to be caused by scandium. 3.0 at 20°C. This can cause lung embolisms, especially during long-term exposure. After Russian chemist Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev in 1871 predicted this element’s existence, tentatively calling it ekaboron, Swedish chemist Lars Fredrik Nilson in 1879 discovered its oxide, scandia, in the rare-earth minerals gadolinite and euxenite, and Swedish chemist Per Teodor Cleve later in 1879 identified scandium as the hypothetical ekaboron. The α-phase is close-packed hexagonal with a = 3.3088 Å and c = 5.2680 Å at room temperature. Density. Scandium has no biological role. Scandium is a soft, lightweight, silvery-white metal with the chemical symbol Sc. The American firearm manufacturing company Smith & Wesson produces semi-automatic pistols and revolvers with frames of scandium alloy and cylinders of titanium or carbon steel. The nucleus is composed of protons and neutrons. 1541 °C. This article was most recently revised and updated by,, Los Alamos National Laboratory - Scandium, scandium - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). For the golf company, see. It reacts with water and form hydrogen gas. Production of aluminium alloys began in 1971, following a US patent. The blue color of the aquamarine variety of beryl is thought to be caused by scandium. "Element 21" redirects here. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Test your bond with the periodic table of elements in this quiz on all 118 chemical elements and their symbols. 0.161 nm. One example is the chlorine-bridged dimer, [ScCp2Cl]2 and related derivatives of pentamethylcyclopentadienyl ligands. Only about 3% of plants that were analysed for scandium shows its presence, and even those amounts were tiny, with vegetable having only 5 ppb although grass has 70 ppb. For this reason, the Sc3+ ion is a relatively strong acid and has a much greater tendency to form complex ions. Electronic shell [ Ar ] 3d 1 4s 2. [25] Solutions of Sc3+ in water are acidic due to hydrolysis. Scandium is one of the rare chemicals, that can be found in houses in equipment such as colour televisions, fluorescent lamps, energy-saving lamps and glasses. Scandium will gradually accumulate in soils and water soils and this will eventually lead to increasing concentrations in humans, animals and soil particles. Energy of first ionisation. Scadium is not toxic, although there have been suggestions that some of its compounds might be cancerogenic. It is fairly stable in air but will slowly change its colour from silvery white to a yellowish appearance because of formation of Sc2O3 oxide on the surface. It has been shown to reduce solidification cracking during the welding of high strength aluminium alloys. The total electrical charge of the nucleus is therefore +Ze, where e (elementa… It is easily burnt and get tarnished in the presence of air. There is no estimate of how much is potentially available. Scandium (Sc), chemical element, a rare-earth metal of Group 3 of the periodic table. Distributieweg 3 2645 EG Delfgauw The Netherlands Phone: +31 152 610 900 fax: +31 152 616 289 e-mail:, 5975 Sunset Drive South Miami, FL 33143 USA Phone: +1 877 453 8095 e-mail:, Level 5 - OFFICE #8-One JLT Tower Jumeirah Lake Towers Dubai - U.A.E. α- and γ-ScOOH are isostructural with their aluminium hydroxide oxide counterparts. 7. Chemical properties of - Chemical properties of melting boil is 1539 Celsius, boiling boil is 2832 Celsius, Ionization Energy is 6,5615 kJ/mol, Electrone Gativity is 1,54, Covalent Radius is 144, Discovery Year: 1791, Discovery by Nilson, Lars Fredrik. 1.1 Chemical Formula. A diagonal relationship exists between the behavior of magnesium and scandium, just as there is between beryllium and aluminium. The main application by volume is in aluminium-scandium alloys for the aerospace industry and for sports equipment (bikes, baseball bats, etc.)