Some efforts in the 1900s resulted in further damage because marble cracked when rust from uncoated stabilizing pins expanded. Behind the chamber, but not originally connected with it, is a smaller, square chamber entered from the west. In the 1460s, when Greece was under Ottoman rule, the temple was transformed into a mosque and stayed that way for nearly 200 years. Greece gained control of Athens on 1832, and all evidence of the Ottomans on the Acropolis was destroyed. This is an engraving made after the original daguerreotype. A small shrine to the goddess has been excavated inside, located on the site of a previous sanctuary. The Parthenon is a symbol of Ancient Greece, originally created to be a... 9 There Was A Pre-Parthenon. (See Elgin Marbles.) A new, third level of content, designed specially to meet the advanced needs of the sophisticated scholar. There are 8 columns on the east and west and 17 on the north and south. The designer of the Parthenon was Phidias, a famous scuplter, and the architects Callicrates and Ictinos supervised the construction work itself. It sits on a hill called the Acropolis overlooking Athens. It was built in the mid-5th century bc in the Doric order, the simplest of the three Classical Greek architectural orders, characterized by simple, austere columns. For centuries, they helped give birth to Western culture as we now know it. Content is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. The Greek goddess Athena was Athen's patron goddess. The Parthenon is a temple in the middle of the Acropolis in Athens, Greece (Europe). The Parthenon was built almost 2,500 years ago and was dedicated to the goddess Athena. It was built between 447 BC and 432 BC during the reign of Pericles. Instead, the main cult image of Athena Polias is located in a different area of the Acropolis. Jessica Stewart is a Contributing Writer and Digital Media Specialist for My Modern Met, as well as a curator and art historian. The Athenian statesman Pericles directed the building of the Parthenon. The east and west ends of the interior of the building are each faced by a portico of six columns. The history of the Acropolis goes back much farther than the Parthenon itself. The Parthenon is a temple in Athens, Greece, that was built during the Athenian Empire rule in honor of the goddess Athena. Britannica does not review the converted text. Take a minute to check out all the enhancements! The Greek goddess Athena was Athen's patron goddess. Kleiner, Fred S., Christin J. Mamiya. The Athenian statesman Pericles directed the building of the Parthenon. Interestingly, the minaret was formed from a tower that was in place because prior, it had been used as a Catholic church. The building has stood atop the Acropolis of Athensfor nearly 2,500 years and was built to give thanks to Athena, the city's patrongoddess, for the salvation of Athensand Greecein the Persian Wars. 1", 2008, p. 280, It was eventually celebrated every fourth year with great splendour, probably in deliberate rivalry to the Olympic Games. Since it was built, it has always been used. 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Want to advertise with us? The Parthenon remained relatively unchanged until the 5th century ad, when Phidias’s colossal statue was removed and the temple was transformed into a Christian church. They have been on display in the British Museum since 1816. Carvings over the outer columns were in high relief and represented, on the east, a battle between gods and giants; on the south, Greeks and centaurs; and on the west, probably Greeks and Amazons. The base of the Parthenon measures 30 by 70 metres. Built in 1897 as part of the Tennessee Centennial Exposition, it also has replicas of the Parthenon marbles cast directly from the originals. Athens was later ruled by Christians who made the Parthenon a church. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use Privacy Policy. From law and politics to athletics and architecture, the ancient Greeks have left an indelible mark on society. While Greece was still under Ottoman rule, Scottish nobleman Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin removed about half of the Parthenon's surviving sculptures. Animated by Fallschirmjäger [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons. Celebrating creativity and promoting a positive culture by spotlighting the best sides of humanity—from the lighthearted and fun to the thought-provoking and enlightening. It was built between 447 BC and 432 BC during the reign of Pericles. 8 Fun Facts About The Pantheon 1. We’re also on Pinterest, Tumblr, and Flipboard. A pediment is a space between the sloping roof and the columns, which has statues in it. "Gardner's Art Through the Ages: Vol. The first known photograph of the Parthenon was taken by Joly de Lotbinière in October 1839. At the Parthenon in Athens, you'll see the remains of a temple built for the Greek goddess Athena, the patron goddess of the ancient City of Athens, in 438 BC.