259-266. Karley AJ; Pitchford JW; Douglas AE; Parker WE; Howard JJ, 2003. Polyphagous non-host-alternating species. Adults are usually green, but may also be pink or red (especially in tomato), depending on the food source. When exposed to long nights, parthenogenetic wingless females … (1966) found little difference between their effectiveness. Vasicek A; Rossa Fde la; Paglioni A, 2001. It has been suggested that this resistance may no longer be as effective against pink forms of M. euphorbiae as it once was (UC IPM Online, 2005). Infected plants are more severely affected if PVY occurs in complex with other viruses, especially PVX. Host-alternating species with several primary (winter) hosts, including Rosa, Table 3. Brighton Crop Protection Conference: Pests & Diseases - 1996: Volume 2: Proceedings of an International Conference, Brighton, UK, 18-21 November 1996., 597-602; 12 ref. J. This species usually alternates between roses and Dipsacaceae or Valerianaceae, but this alternation is not obligatory, and it may be found throughout the year on rose. In addition, more alatae are produced on infected plants, which may stimulate ZYMV spread. Transforming cv. The virus is spread by aphid species that colonize lettuce plants and feed for long periods. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 84(2):137-146; 22 ref. Some PVYN isolates cause the potato tuber necrotic disease (Le Romancer and Kerlan, 1991), and are referred to as PVYNTN. Parker WE, 2005. Economic losses are due to yield loss, occasional virus spread, and especially to the presence of aphids, honeydew and sooty moulds that reduce the marketability of salad crops. Aphid species that form large colonies and are capable of transmitting the virus to lettuce include Aulacorthum solani that can be easily misidentified with M. persicae. MacKinnon JP, 1969. Florida Entomologist, 84(1):83-98; 23 ref. Recombination analysis grouped isolates of PVYSYR into three recombination patterns, SYR-I, SYR-II, and SYR-III, which varied in the first 700 nucleotides of their genomes, with the second recombination pattern, SYR-II, the most frequent. The sequences of about 30 PVY isolates have been reported with homologies of 93–99% (van der Vlugt et al., 1993). Host-alternating populations of M. euphorbiae disperse through migratory flights in the spring and autumn. referring to animal species that have been transported to and established populations in regions outside of their natural range, usually through human action. Impact of ultraviolet-absorbing plastic films on insect vectors of virus diseases infecting crisp lettuce. Original citation: Abou-Fakhr and Kawar (1998), Original citation: Blackman and Eastop (1984), Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye, Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Biological Control of Arthropods, Christchurch, New Zealand, 8-13 February, 2009 [ed. Treatments with garlic essential oil (Allium sativum) + soybean oil and Eucalyptus essential oil (E. globulus) + soybean oil were the most effective in repelling the aphids (Castresan et al., 2013). euphorbiae can be a significant pest of crops in greenhouse. Over 50 aphid species are known to transmit PVY (Ragsdale et al., 2001). D'yakonov KP; Romanova SA; Ledneva VA, 1994. The cylindrical cytoplasmic inclusions (CIs) of PVY isolates are of Edwardson's Division IV. Several parasitoids are used or have shown potential as biological control agents of M. euphorbiae. The peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), and the potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), alone are able to transmit above 40 viruses to different crops (Blackman and Eastop, 1984).