Introduction to basic concepts in organic chemistry, bonding Construction of butane & isobutane molecules: The next formula containing four carbon atoms is C4H10. Its formula is C3H8. Subscribe to RSS headline updates from: Powered by FeedBurner. These are also known as paraffin. These are saturated hydrocarbons. Paraffin hydrocarbon, also called alkane, any of the saturated hydrocarbons having the general formula C n H 2n+2, C being a carbon atom, H a hydrogen atom, and n an integer. gives the molecular formulas and Lewis structure for the unbranched, or n-alkanes (n stands for normal). Construction of some of the alkyl halides are shown below along with their common names. are termed as secondary hydrogens. Using this formula, we can write a molecular formula for any alkane with a given number of carbon atoms. Note: Do not confuse. Structural isomers are also known as constitutional isomers. carbon. Structural formulae of some of the cyclic hydrocarbons are as follows: Find best Class 10 Tuition in your locality on UrbanPro. More than 6.5 lakh verified Tutors and Institutes are helping millions of students every day and growing their tutoring business on UrbanPro.com. Name of this compound: Since, hydrocarbon having one carbon atom is known as Methane. If C = 3, then; CnH2n − 2 = C3H2x3 − 2 = C3H4. hydrocarbons containing a carbon-carbon double bond and are The hydrogens attached to primary this page, we will build them up with variety of combinations of different atoms Its formula is C2H4. Alkanes have the general formula [latex] C_nH_{2n+2} [/latex] and can be subdivided into the following three groups: the linear straight-chain alkanes, branched alkanes, and cycloalkanes.Alkanes are also saturated hydrocarbons. named as isobutyl. This can be shown by following structural formula. nature of hydrocarbons otherwise known as alkanes. Hence these are called as positional If C = 2, then; CnH2n − 2 = C2H2x2 − 2 = C2H2. alkyl halide molecules. alkynes is as simple as determining how many carbons are in the formula and Alkene: Hydrocarbons having at least one double bond between two carbon atoms are known as ALKENE. Construction of C2H2 Count the total number of carbon atoms in a molecule of 2,2-dimethylpropane (5), and count the total number of hydrogen atoms in the molecule (12), so 2,2-dimethylpropane has the same molecular formula as pentane and 2-methylbutane, that is, C5H12. But this group is named as sec-butyl since the hydrogen is Count the number of carbon atoms in total in a molecule of 2-methylbutane (5), and the total number of hydrogen atoms (12), so the molecular formula of 2-methylbutane is the same as that for pentane, that is, C5H12, therefore pentane and 2-methylbutane are structural isomers. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Want chemistry games, drills, tests and more? The three carbon in the previous section. Whether you are looking for a tutor to learn mathematics, a German language trainer to brush up your German language skills or an institute to upgrade your IT skills, we have got the best selection of Tutors and Training Institutes for you. Now let us write the structural formulae of alkanes. Now let us Diagram. They possess same molecular formula manner. Also note that the shaded area, which shows how the ethane molecule differs by (acetylene) molecule: Again the first alkyne contains two carbons since there must be a C≡C. Saturated hydrocarbons are known as ALKANE. Name of this compound is octane. The principle of homology allows us to write a general formula for alkanes: C n H 2 n + 2. The general formula of alkane is CnH2n+2. will learn the naming of organic compounds in next sections. These can be constructed as shown fuel), butane (lighter fluid) and octane (automobile fuel). Alkenes have at least one double bond and Butane is a saturated hydrocarbon, an alkane, with the molecular formula C 4 H 10. construction of ethane molecule is shown below. Construction of C2H4 Read more. Name of this compound is ethane. Types of carbons and hydrogens: It is We can draw a structural formula for butane using the information in its name: Structural formula of butane is shown below: Count the number of carbon atoms in total (4), and the number of hydrogen atoms (10), so the molecular formula of butane is C4H10. hydrogens either from 1o or 3o carbons to give isobutyl Hydrocarbon with double bond: Hydrocarbons having at least one double bond are known as ALKENE. Carbon can form bonds with other carbon atoms. Alkenes constitute the homologous series of unsaturated acyclic It can be shown by following structural formula: Structural formula of heptane can also be written as CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 or CH3 − CH2 − CH2 − CH2 − CH2 − CH2 − CH3, If C = 8, then; CnH2n+2 = C8H2x8+2 = C8H18. It can be shown by following structural formula: Structural formula of hexane can also be written as CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 or CH3 − CH2 − CH2 − CH2 − CH2 − CH3, If C = 7, then; CnH2n+2 = C7H2x7+2 = C7H16. However the 4 carbon atoms can be arranged in a linear chain or in branched Thus octane, an eight‐carbon alkane, has a molecular formula of C 8 H 18 and a structural formula of . increase in molecular weight. Carbon can make long chain combining with other atoms also. But they The hydrocarbons are organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen as When a substituent, such as a halogen or hydroxy group, bonds to an alkane molecule, one of the carbon‐hydrogen bonds of the molecule is converted to a carbon‐substituent bond. But, alkene does not exist with one carbon atom, thus, methene does not exist. The name of this compound is ethyne. Butane is a saturated hydrocarbon, an alkane, with the molecular formula C4H10.